IGICE CYA 1: Amateka ya Sinema Nyarwanda mu gihe cy’ubukoroni-eachamps.rw

IGICE CYA 1: Amateka ya Sinema Nyarwanda mu gihe cy’ubukoroni

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Twifashishije incamake y’amateka yashyizwe ahagaragara na mwarimu Jean Claude Uwiringiyimana, tugiye kubagezaho amwe mu mateka yaranze sinema nyarwanda kuva ku mwaduko w’abazungu (igihe cya gikoroni) kugeza ku gihe cya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994.

Sinema mu Rwanda mu gihe cy’ubukoroni (mu ncamake)

Nk’ibindi bihugu byo mu karere, amateka ya sinema mu Rwanda atangirana n’igihe cya gikoroni. Ku ikubitiro, u Rwanda rwabaye koroni y’Afurika Ndage y’Iburasirazuba, Deutsch-Ostarfrika. Muri icyo gihe sosiyeti yitwaga “Deutsche Kolonial Gesellschaft (DKG), German Colonial Society”, niyo yari ifite inshingano zo gukora filime muri koroni z’Ubudage, ibifashijwemo ku buryo bwa tekiniki, na kampani y’Abafaransa Pathé Frères yari imwe mu zihariye isoko rya filime muri icyo gihe ku isi yose dore ko yakoranaga n’iza Hollywood.

Nyuma y’imyaka itatu gusa sinema ivutse (ku rwego rw’isi, tariki ya 28/12/1895), mu w’1898 Leta y’Ubudage yagaragaje ubushake bwo gukora filime muri za koroni zayo. Ni muri uwo mwaka, Dr Stuhlmann wari ukuriye «Amani Institute in East Africa» yasabye ubufasha bw’amafaranga yo gukora filime muri za koroni ndage.

Muri icyo gihe, umufatashusho w’Umudage Carl Müller yakoze udufilime tunyuranye kuri Afurika Ndage y’Iburasirazuba ndetse abasha kwerekana bwa mbere utwo dufilime tariki ya 10 Mata 1905. Utwo dufilime twerekanaga bimwe mu bikorwa byo muri koroni nk’iyubakwa ry’amazu y’ubuyobozi bwa gikoroni, ihingwa ry’ibihingwa bishya nk’ikawa, amashusho yerekana inkombe za koroni zituriye inyanja, imyitozo y’abasirikare kavukire (bitaga “askaris”) bo muri Afurika Ndage y’Iburasirazuba, imbyino gakondo z’Abanyafurika n’ibindi.

Kugeza Ubudage butsinzwe Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi mu w’1918, bukirukanwa no muri koroni zabwo, bwari bwabashije kuhakorera filime ziri hagati ya mirongo itanu na mirongo itandatu, harimo izakorewe muri Tanganyika, dore ko ariho bwabanje kugira icyicaro gikuru i Bagamoyo (hagati y’1885 n’1890) ndetse n’i Dar Es Salaam (hagati y’1890 n’1918).

N’ubwo umushakashatsi Guido Convents mu gitabo cye Images et Paix. Les Rwandais et les Burundais face au cinéma et à l’audio-visuel (cyasohotse mu w’2008) agaruka kuri iyo sinema ya gikoroni mu gihe u Rwanda n’u Burundi byakoronizwaga n’Ubudage, usanga avuga gusa kuri Tanganyika, u Rwanda n’u Burundi ntibugaragaremo kandi ari byo bihugu birebwa n’ubushakashatsi bwe. Bikaba bidaterwa no kubura amakuru kuri sinema mu Rwanda mu gihe cy’ubukoroni bw’Abadage, ahubwo ari ukubera ko abakoraga filime muri za koroni batari bahashishikariye muri iyo myaka mike Abadage bahamaze.

Mu by’ukuri, uretse inkambi bashinze i Shangi bakinjira mu Rwanda mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19 (mu w’1898), urebye batangiye gutegeka nyabyo u Rwanda mu w’1907 ubwo bashyiraga ikigo cy’ingabo zabo i Kigali, bakanashinga muri uwo mwaka umurwa wa Kigali. Na bwo kandi bari batarumvikana n’abakoroni bagenzi babo iby’imipaka aho bayigennye mu w’1910 bongera kuyisubiramo mu w’1922 u Rwanda rusubizwa i Gisaka.

Ikindi, kuba intambara ya mbere y’isi yaratangiye mu w’1914, umuntu akaba yakwemeza ko nta mwanya Abadage bagize wo gushyiraho gahunda ihamye ya sinema mu gice cya Rwanda-Urundi. Sinema ikaba itarabonye umwanya wo gushinga imizi muri icyo gihe. 

Ubwo u Rwanda rwaragizwaga umuryango w’ibihugu byiyunze, SDN (Société Des Nations) muri Kamena 1919, hamwe n’u Burundi byometswe kuri Kongo Mbirigi tariki ya 20 Nyakanga 1922. Icyashishikaje u Bubirigi ku ikubitiro si ukwita kuri iyo teritwari yabo nshya (bitaga “iya Karindwi”), ahubwo habayeho kubanza guhirika ku ngoma umwami Musinga, batumvikanaga na gato. Mu by’ukuri, twavuga ko batangiye gutegeka nyabyo u Rwanda mu myaka y’1930, kandi na bwo icyari kibashishikaje kuri Rwanda-Urundi ni ukuhabona ingufu (abakozi) zo gukoresha mu birombe by’amabuye y’agaciro muri Kongo, by’umwihariko i Katanga.

Muri filime Umubirigi Gérard De Boe yakoze mu w’1958 akayita En Cinquante ans agaruka cyane ku mashusho y’ijyanwa muri Kongo ry’Abanyarwanda n’Abarundi mu rwego rwo kubakoresha muri za mine z’aho. Mu by’ukuri, uwavuga ko sinema itari muri gahunda yabo mu Rwanda rw’icyo gihe ntabwo yaba yibeshye, dore ko SDN yari yahaye Ububirigi manda yo mu bwoko bwa B aho yategekaga Ububirigi kuyobora Rwanda-Urundi, bativanze mu by’idini cyangwa ngo bahashinge ibigo bya gisirikare (Reyntjens, 1985, 43).

Uretse n’iyo mipaka bari bahawe mu kuyobora u Rwanda (hamwe n’u Burundi) rw’icyo gihe, na bo ubwabo ntibari bashishikajwe n’iyo teritwari nshya (Reyntjens, 1985, 35). Niba se mu by’ukuri u Rwanda rutari rubashishikaje ku ikubitiro, ni gute bari gushishikazwa no kuhatangiza gahunda ihamye ya sinema?

Mu mwaka w’1949, Gérard de Boé wari umukozi mu by’ubuzima muri Kongo Mbirigi (guhera mu w’1927), akaba yaranakoraga firime mpamo (mu buryo butari ubw’umwuga), yakoze agafirime mpamo Ruanda-Urundi. Nyuma y’imyaka itandatu, firime Bwana Kitoko yakozwe na André Cauvin mu w’1955 avuga ku rugendo umwami w’Ububirigi Baudouin yagiriye muri Kongo Mbirigi na Rwanda-Urundi muri Gicurasi na Kamena 1955 aho yageze mu Rwanda avuye i Gitega mu Burundi mu matariki ya mbere ya Kamena 1955.

Nyuma y’umwaka umwe, mu w’1956, Umushakashatsi ku mico n’imigenzo y’abantu ndetse akaba n’Umuyobozi w’amafirime mpamo, Luc de Heusch, yakoze agafirime mpamo ku Rwanda, yise «Rwanda tableaux d’une féodalité pastorale». Bene aba banditsi ndetse n’abashakashatsi ku mico ni na bo mu by’ukuri batumye Hollywood imenya u Rwanda, ndetse bayikoreramo bwa mbere firime y’umwibariro.

Bafatiye ku nkuru y’umwibariro «King Solomon’s Mines» yanditswe n’Umwongereza Henry Rider Haggard mu w’1885, abagize kampani ikomeye y’ i Hollywood Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer bakoreye mu Rwanda firime y’umwibariro «King Solomon’s Mines» (1950, 103 min) yayobowe na Compton Bennett ndetse na Andrew Marton. Iyo firime yasohotse tariki ya 24 Ugushyingo 1950, itwaye akayabo k’amadorari y’Amerika miliyoni ebyiri n’ibihumbi magana abiri mirongo itanu n’umunani ($2,258,000), hafi arenga gato miriyari imwe n’igice y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda. 

Ubutaha tuzabagezaho Igice cya Kabiri kivuga ku mateka ya SInema mu Rwanda mu gihe cya Repubulika ya mbere ndetse n’iya kabiri.

1 month ago | by Eachamps

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